One of the most basic, and at the same time, most effective way to light a character or object in a scene, is using a three-point lighting setup. This setup is used extensively by photographers, filmmakers or CGI artists. But as you’ll see in this example, creative use of the three-point lighting method can be used also as a storytelling device.
Let’s quickly describe, what the three-point lighting method is all about. As the name suggests, we’ll be using three lights: key light, fill light and back light. Let’s start with the key light.
Key light is our main source of light. It is the brightest light, which defines the overall direction, angle, color and strength of light and shadows in the scene.
Fill light shines at the subject from the same side, but at a different angle. It has lower intensity than the key light and its main function is to “fill in” the harsh shadows, created by the key light.
Back light, a.k.a. rim light, shines at the subject from behind, creating a light wrap around character/object’s contours, helping thus separate the character/object from the background.
It is also clearly visible, that back light, due to its position, hides the character/object in shadows.
Emotional meaning of shadows:
Everybody will associate different meanings and assign different values to that word, so in the following sentences, I’ll try to describe, what it means to me.
- The first association is something dark, something bad and evil. The dark side of your personality, that nobody should know about.
- Secondly, it may represent your wrongdoings, or demons haunting you for the bad things, you did in your past.
- Next, shadows are kind of mystery, they impose more questions than answers.
- And lastly, shadows may portray evil intentions or plans.
Buzz versus Lotso
The scene starts, when the daycare closes. (Notice the lighting in the scene, telling us that it’s a late afternoon!) Andy’s toys are tired, exhausted and frustrated, because their first playtime in the daycare was a lot different from what they were looking for.
Therefore, Buzz decides to go to visit Lotso (local boss) and talk with him about moving him and his friends to the other room, where they’ll be treated much better.
On his way to Lotso, he has to pass several obstacles and guards. Now, notice the long shadows of the guards in the picture above, caused by the back light. I don’t know what exactly they mean, but on emotional level, it tells me, that these guys are bad.
Continuing on the way, Buzz enters the vending machine, but gets caught later by a big doll baby. He is then moved to the library, when he finally meets Lotso. They have a short argument, after which Lotso decides to reset Buzz, by switching him from the play to demo mode.
In the picture above, we can see Lotso reading the manual, searching for instructions, how to reset Buzz Lightyear to the original factory settings.
What is really exciting here, is the lighting of the scene, primarily the lighting of Lotso. The back light creates nice light wrap (rim) around his contours, but most importantly, because of the missing key and fill light, Lotso’s face is in the shadow.
Again, emotionally, it really works for me. It shows the dark side of his character and his bad intentions with Buzz.
I can’t wait to watch the movie again and search for other examples of cinematic storytelling. I love you Pixar!